Wednesday, April 05, 2006

香港的國企---郵政署

自由市場講求公平、公正、公開,商業社會最怕是大財團壟斷,窒礙其他市場參與者的發展。香港政府多年來均以得到「最自由」的名銜而引以為傲,不過政府部門郵政署卻成為了尾大不掉的「香港國企」,透過猶如壟斷的經營手法,不斷侵蝕郵件、宣傳品以至物流速遞的私人市場生意,最直接結果就是市場上再沒有對手可與其爭一日之長短,正如署方的宣傳口號所言,其他對手根本難與其「匹敵」。

郵政署去年派出的「香港郵政通函服務」高達9,700萬件。該類郵件毋須知悉戶主姓名,只需要寄往相關地址。究竟這些直銷郵件是如何選擇收件人呢? 禢中怡從香港郵政網頁中發現郵政署可以讓你從九項人口指標中,選出與目標顧客關係最密切的其中兩項,如家庭入息、住宅租金、職業、教育程度。

郵政署亦頗懂得利用官方的資訊優勢,預設了9大類共29種鄰里類別供顧客選擇,你可選出以下與目標顧客有相同特徵的鄰里類別(見表)。當中不乏趣怪之處,令你會心微笑,大可不必對號入座,但褟中怡只能驚訝郵政署已一早以居住地區公然將人口分類分級,當中居民看了這個分類表後,不知會有何感想。

10年前,郵政署改為轉以營運基金模式運作,政府一次過注資21億元,往後自負盈虧,再無政府的按年撥款。10年來,為了鞏固香港郵政的收入基礎,郵政署推出三十多項新的服務及產品,例如香港郵政通函,郵繳通代收各類帳單、物流服務等等。去年郵政署已償還政府9億元貸款,而上繳政府的股息和其他回報,更超出當年政府提供的21億元營運資本。

翻查郵政署的年報,郵政署確是政府的一隻下金蛋的鵝。2004/05年度郵政署總收入為37.3億元,而支出卻能維持在35億水平,近12.7億郵件量及7千多名員工人數也沒甚麼大增長。

2004/05年度郵政署稅後溢利為2.5億,增長2.1億,比同年淨收入的2億增長還要高。禢中怡覺得郵政署得天獨厚,像通函郵件,誰都知道是塊肥肉。但相信只有郵政署才能夠正當合法地將宣傳品派送到各商業和住宅樓宇信箱,正如他們的宣傳口號「範圍之廣,效率之高,絕非其他服務機構所能匹敵」,地位與國企無異。

此類「陀地費」或美其名的間接稅,你付了也不知。郵政署服務模式越來越多,且甚具針對性,如果它是私人機構,大概也不會有人異議,但問題在於這個公家衙門是以公家專利的資源來與私人機構在商業市場中競爭。最簡單例子,現時大部分私人屋苑均對外來宣傳品十分抗拒,私人速遞公司基本無從入手,但郵政署卻能以派信之便,大模斯樣地為客戶派發宣傳單張到本港每一個角落的私人信箱,私人公司根本無可能與之競爭。

政府經常以公平市場競爭作為宣傳口號,但從郵政署近年的發展而言,大概也說明了是怎麼一回事,難怪DHL早年在被德國郵政收購後,寧願退出本地市場,也不願與郵政署一較高下。最近,郵政署旗下的特快專遞,狂賣廣告,但願納稅人的錢,能好好運用。

從另一角度分析,郵政署現時以壟斷手法來獨霸市場的後遺症,就是只需不斷擴張業務,就可以不理會私人機構式的人事管理模式,在過去幾年的緊日子中,郵政署的效率有否提升,人手有沒有跟大勢削減都是個疑問。

如此下來,郵政署其實是以私人市場生意份額來補貼公務員開支,與民爭利。禢中怡覺得,與其任由郵政署變成半公半私的三不像,政府不如及早想想把郵政署這個國企單位真的私有化吧。

(31-03-06 刊於《am730》)

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